Kodi (formerly XBMC) is a free and open-source media player software application developedby the XBMC Foundation, a non-profit technology consortium.
Kodi is available for multiple operating systems and hardware platforms, with a software 10-footuser interface for use with televisions and remote controls.
It allows users to play and view most streaming media, such as videos, music, podcasts, andvideos from the Internet, as well as all common digital media files from local and networkstorage media.
It is a multi-platform home-theater PC (HTPC) application.
Kodi is highly customizable: a variety of skins can change its appearance, and variousplug-ins allow users to access streaming media content via online services such as AmazonPrime Instant Video, Crackle, Pandora Internet Radio, Rhapsody, Spotify, and YouTube.
The later versions also have a personal video-recorder (PVR) graphical front end for receiving livetelevision with electronic program guide (EPG) and high-definition digital video recorder(DVR) support.
The software was created as an independently developed homebrew mediaplayer application named Xbox Media Center (abbreviated as XBMC) for the first-generationXbox game console, and was later made available under the name XBMC as a native applicationfor Android, Linux, BSD, macOS, iOS/tvOS, and Microsoft Windows-based operating systems.
Becauseof its open source and cross-platform nature, with its core code written in C++, modifiedversions of Kodi-XBMC together with a JeOS have been used as a software appliance suiteor software framework in a variety of devices including smart TVs, set-top boxes, digitalsignage, hotel television systems, network connected media players and embedded systemsbased on armhf platform like Raspberry Pi.
Derivative applications such as MediaPortal and Plex have been spun off from XBMC or Kodi,as well as Just enough operating systems like OpenELEC and LibreELEC.
Kodi has attractednegative attention due to the availability of third-party plug-ins for the software thatfacilitate unauthorized access to copyrighted media content, as well as "fully loaded" digitalmedia players that are pre-loaded with such add-ons; the XBMC Foundation has not endorsedany of these uses, and has taken steps to disassociate the Kodi project from these add-ons,including threatening legal action against those using its trademarks to promote them.
== Overview == Kodi supports many common audio, video, andimage formats, playlists, audio visualizations, slideshows, weather forecasts reporting, andthird-party plugins.
It is network-capable (internet and home network shares).
Unlike other media center applications such as Windows Media Center, MediaPortal and MythTV,Kodi does not include its own internal digital TV-tuner code for Live TV or DVR/PVR recordingfunctionality, as instead it acts as a unified DVR/PVR front-end with an EPG TV-Guide GUIinterface which, via a common API, abstracts and supports multiple back-ends via PVR clientadd-ons from third parties, with those running either locally on the same machine or overthe network.
Plug-ins, using either C/C++ programming languages to create binary add-ons or thePython scripting language to create Script Addons, expand Kodi to include features suchas television program guides, YouTube, Hulu, Netflix, Veoh, online movie trailer support,and Pandora Radio and podcast streaming.
Kodi also functions as a game launcher on any operating system.
Kodi's source code isdistributed as open source under the GNU General Public License (GPL), it is governed by thetax-exempt registered non-profit US organization, XBMC Foundation, and is owned and developedby a global free software community of unpaid volunteers.
Even though the original XBMC projectno longer develops or supports XBMC for the Xbox, XBMC on the Xbox is still availablevia the third-party developer spin-off project "XBMC4Xbox", which forked the Xbox versionof the software and completely took over the development and support of XBMC for the oldXbox.
The ending of Xbox support by the original project was also the reason that it was renamed"XBMC" from the old "Xbox Media Center" name, and why it later was renamed "Kodi".
The Xbox version of XBMC had the ability to launch console games, and homebrew applicationssuch as emulators.
Since the XBMC for Xbox version was never distributed, endorsed, or supported by Microsoft,it always required a modchip or softmod exploit to run on the Xbox game-console.
=== Hardware requirements === Kodi has greater basic hardware requirementsthan traditional 2D style software applications: it needs a 3D capable graphics hardware controllerfor all rendering.
Powerful 3D GPU chips are common today in most modern computer platforms, includingmany set-top boxes, and XBMC, now Kodi, was from the start designed to be otherwise veryresource efficient for being as powerful and versatile framework as it is.
It runs well on what (by Intel Atom standards) are relatively underpowered OpenGL 1.
3 (withGLSL support), OpenGL ES 2.
0 or Direct3D (DirectX) 9.
0 capable systems that are IA-32/x86, x86-64,ARM (AArch32 and AArch64), or PowerPC G4 or later CPU based.
When software decoding ofa full HD 1080p high-definition and high bit-rate video is performed by the system CPU, a dual-core2 GHz or faster CPU is required in order to allow for perfectly smooth playback withoutdropping frames or giving playback a jerky appearance.
Kodi can however offload most of the video decoding process onto graphics hardware controlleror embedded video processing circuits that supports one of the following types of hardware-acceleratedvideo decoding: Google's MediaCodec API for Android, Intel's VAAPI, Nvidia's VDPAU API,AMD's XvBA API, Microsoft's DXVA API, Apple's VDADecoder/VideoToolbox APIs, and the KhronosGroup's OpenMAX API, AMLogic VPU, Freescale's i.
MX6x series VPU, and Raspberry Pi's GPUMMAL.
By taking advantage of such hardware-accelerated video decoding, Kodi can play back most videoson many inexpensive, low-performance systems, as long as they contain a supported VPU orGPU.
=== Language support === Kodi includes full internationalization andlocalization support with full translations into 12 languages; there are projects to translateinto a total of 75 ongoing as of 2017.
Fully or partially available languages in Kodi are:†Fully translated.
Other languages still have from 10 to 4,847 strings to translate.
Kodi's structure is such that if the language is not available, or not up-to-date, it canbe made by editing simple strings in an XML-file, which can then be submitted to XBMC's projectmanagement and bug tracking system tool for use by others, and after version 11.
0 XBMCswitched to using GetText PO (Portable Object) formatted files for more easily handled translatortranslations using Transifex web-based translation platform with online crowd-sourced translationservices.
The Kodi wiki reported that Kodi supported 72 languages.
== Core features ===== Live TV with EPG and PVR/DVR frontend ===The TV feature allows users to watch some TV broadcasts that may be transmitted by aDTT, ADSL, cable, or Internet streaming, depending on the chosen add-on.
From version 12.
0 (Frodo), Kodi has a native Live TV with EPG (Electronic Program Guide)and DVR (Digital Video Recorder) features with a PVR (Personal Video Recorder) frontendGUI, which enables video capture and playback to and from a hard disk drive with PVR ClientAddons for most popular PVR backends (TV tuner card server).
These addons can be installed separately as plugins in Kodi.
The PVR backend can either be a DVR set-top box connected to the network or a PC witha digital video recorder software.
This software can run on the same computer or on other computers on the same network.
The PVR software can turn computers or other appliances into DVRs.
The operating system can be Linux, macOS, Microsoft Windows, and Android devices.
Severaltypes of PVR Client Addons are available:addons used for many PVR software and hardware such as Argus TV, DVBLogic DVBLink, DVBViewer,ForTheRecord, Tvheadend, MediaPortal, MythTV, NextPVR (formerly GB-PVR), VDR, Windows MediaCenter, addons used for Enigma2-based DVR set-topboxes such as Dreambox, DBox2, and Vu+.
, addons used for direct LAN connection to network-attachedTV-Tuners such as HDHomeRun, PCTV Systems Broadway, VBox Home TV Gateway, and Njoy DigitalAnySee N7 DVB-S2 Network-Tuner.
addons used for the Internet-based television providers FilmOn (FilmOn.
TV Networks), andStalker Middleware, addons used for IPTV in general, e.
thesimple PVR client addon.
=== Video playback ======= Video Library ==== The Video Library, one of the Kodi metadatadatabases, is a key feature of Kodi.
It allows the organization of video content by information associated with the video files(e.
, movies and recorded TV shows) themselves.
This information can be obtained in various ways, like through scrapers (e.
, web scrapingsites like IMDb, TheMovieDB, TheTVDB), and nfo files.
Automatically downloading and displaying movie posters and fan art backdrops as backgroundwallpapers.
The Library Mode view allows users to browse their video content by categories; Genre,Title, Year, Actors and Directors.
==== Video player cores ==== Kodi uses one multimedia video player "core"for video-playback.
This video-player "core" for video-playback is an in-house developed cross-platform mediaplayer, "DVDPlayer", which was designed to play back DVD-Video movies, and this includessupport native for DVD-menus, (based on the free open source libraries code libdvdcssand libdvdnav).
This FFmpeg based video-player "core" today supports all widespread mainstream formats.
One relatively unusual feature of this DVD-player core is the capability to on-the-fly pauseand play DVD-Video movies that are stored in ISO and IMG DVD-images or DVD-Video (IFO/VOB/BUP)images (even directly from uncompressed RAR and ZIP archives), from either local harddrivestorage or network-share storage.
=== Audio playback ======= Music Library ====The Music Library, one of the Kodi metadata databases, is another key feature of Kodi.
It allows the organization of a music collection to allow searching, and creating smart playlistsby information stored in music file ID meta tags, like title, artist, album, productionyear, genre, and popularity.
Automatically downloading and displaying album covers and fan art backdrops as backgroundwallpapers.
==== Audio player cores ==== For music playback, Kodi includes its ownin-house developed audio-player, "PAPlayer" (which stands for "Psycho-Acoustic Audio Player"),and this audio-player core's most notable features are on-the-fly resampling of theaudio frequency, gapless playback, crossfading, ReplayGain, cue sheet and Ogg Chapter support.
The PAPlayer audio-player handles a very large variety of audio file-formats and supportsmost tagging standards.
Kodi also has support for most popular karaoke computer file formats, and is able to playand display timed song lyrics graphics/text from CD+G, LRC, and KAR files.
=== Digital picture/image display === Kodi handles all common digital picture/imageformats with the options of panning/zooming and slideshow with "Ken Burns Effect", withthe use of CxImage open source library code.
XBMC can handle CBZ (ZIP) and CBR (RAR) comic book archive files, this feature lets usersview/read, browse and zoom the pictures of comics pages these contain without uncompressingthem first.
=== Games Manager and game console emulators ===Development was in progress in 2013 on new core features integrating a built-in GamesManager and Game Launcher front-end GUI with a Games Library, and Game Console EmulatorAPI into XBMC.
The code for all was being developed in a separate branch to be incorporated into themainline tree.
The Games Manager, once integrated into Kodi, provides a unified games managerlibrary and GUI front-end launcher with online metadata web scraping support for informationabout the games.
It also introduces Game Addons as new type of addon with just-in-time emulator installation.
Adding a Games Library for Game Metadata, exposing info (current level, number of lives,number of coins earned, etc.
) to GUI, as well as extending the Addon API to support GameClient Addons, supporting Kodi's VFS (Virtual File System).
It also provides a joystick and gamepad abstraction layer for common joystick API and input clients.
==== RetroPlayer ==== Also under development is the "RetroPlayer"video game console emulator (ROMs) interface, supporting the libretro API and emulator cores(from the RetroArch project, which is its reference front-end).
Libretro itself is a modular multi-system game/emulator system designed to be fast,lightweight, and portable.
RetroPlayer supports emulators for most popular retro game consoles,including but not limited to: Atari 2600, Atari Lynx, Atari Jaguar, Nintendo EntertainmentSystem, Super NES, Nintendo 64, Game Boy, the original PlayStation, Sega systems (MasterSystem, Genesis, Sega CD, Game Gear), plus multiple arcade games via MAME (Multiple ArcadeMachine Emulator) and FBA (Final Burn Alpha), as well as ScummVM and MS-DOS based games.
=== Audio, video, and pictures media formats ===Kodi can play media from CD/DVD media using an internal DVD-ROM drive.
It can play media from an internal built-in hard disk drive and SMB/SAMBA/CIFS shares(Windows File-Sharing), NFS, or stream them over ReplayTV DVRs/PVRs, Universal Plug andPlay (UPnP) or Digital Living Network Alliance (DLNA) shares, or stream iTunes-shares viaDigital Audio Access Protocol (DAAP).
Kodi can take advantage of a broadband Internet connection if available to stream Internet-video-streamslike YouTube, Hulu, Netflix, and Veoh, and play Internet-radio-stations (such as PandoraRadio).
Kodi includes the option to submit music usage statistics to Last.
fm and Libre.
It has music/video-playlist features, picture/image-slideshow functions, an MP3+CDG karaoke function andmany audio-visualizations and screensavers.
Kodi can upscale/upconvert all standard-definition resolution videos and output them to 720p,1080i, and 1080p high-definition resolutions.
Under Microsoft Windows, Kodi supports Directsoundand WASAPI; since WASAPI performs no mixing or resampling, it provides best audio quality.
==== Format support ==== Kodi can be used to play/view all common multimediaformats through its native clients and parsers.
It can decode these audio and video formats in software or hardware, and optionally pass-throughAC3/DTS audio, or encode to AC3 in real time from movies directly to S/PDIF digital outputto an external audio-amplifier/receiver for decoding.
Supported formats: Physical digital media: Blu-ray Disc (unencrypted),CDs, DVDs, DVD-Video, Video CDs (including VCD/SVCD/XVCD), Audio-CD (CDDA), USB FlashDrives, and local Hard Disk Drives Network protocol clients: AirPlay/AirTunes,UPnP / DLNA (Digital Living Network Alliance), SMB/SAMBA/CIFS, AFP, DAAP, Zeroconf/Avahi/Bonjour,NFS, HTTP, HTTPS, WebDAV, FTP, RTSP (RTSPU, RTSPT), MMS (MMSU, MMST), Podcasting, TCP,UDP, SFTP, RTP and RTMP (including RTMP, RTMPT, RTMPE, RTMPTS, RTMPTE, RTMPS), DHCP, NTPNetwork protocol servers: JSON-RPC server, D-Bus server, Web server, FTP Server, andUPnP AV media server, and a multi-protocol Event ServerContainer formats: AVI, MPEG, WMV, ASF, FLV, MKV/MKA (Matroska), QuickTime, MP4, M4A, AAC,NUT, Ogg, OGM, RealMedia RAM/RM/RV/RA/RMVB, 3gp, VIVO, PVA, NUV, NSV, NSA, FLI, FLC, DVR-MSand WTV Playlist formats: M3UVideo formats: MPEG-1, MPEG-2, H.
263, MPEG-4 SP and ASP, MPEG-4 AVC (H.
264), HEVC (H.
265),HuffYUV, Indeo, MJPEG, RealVideo, RMVB, Sorenson, VP8, VP9, WMV, CinepakAudio formats: MIDI, AIFF, WAV/WAVE, MP2, MP3, AAC, AACplus (AAC+), Vorbis, AC3, DTS,ALAC, AMR, FLAC, Monkey's Audio (APE), RealAudio, SHN, WavPack, MPC/Musepack/Mpeg+, Shorten,Speex, WMA, IT, S3M, MOD (Amiga Module), XM, NSF (NES Sound Format), SPC (SNES), GYM (Genesis),SID (Commodore 64), Adlib, YM (Atari ST), ADPCM (Nintendo GameCube), and CD-DADigital picture/image formats: RAW image formats, BMP, JPEG, GIF, PNG, TIFF, MNG, ICO, PCX andTarga/TGA Subtitle formats: AQTitle, ASS/SSA, CC, JACOsub,MicroDVD, MPL2, MPlayer, MPsub, OGM, PJS, RT, SMI, SRT, SUB, RealText, VOBsub, ubViewer,VPlayer Metadata tags: APEv1, APEv2, ID3 (ID3v1 andID3v2), ID666 and Vorbis comments for audio file formats, Exif and IPTC (including GeoTagging)for image file formats=== Addons Manager, addons and plugins ===Kodi features several open APIs to enable third-party developers to create capabilitieswhich extend Kodi with a multitude of addons, such as audio and video streaming pluginsfor online sources, screensavers, skins and themes, visualizations, weather forecasts,web interfaces, web scrapers, widget scripts, and more.
Kodi developers encourage users to make and submit their own addons to expand media contentand value-added services accessible from within Kodi.
Kodi/XBMC features, since version 10.
0 (codename: "Dharma"), an Addons Framework architectureand an Addons Manager GUI client that connects to a decentralized digital distribution serviceplatform that serves add-on apps and plug-ins which among other things provide online contentto Kodi, the "Addons Manager" (or "Addons Browser") inside Kodi allows users to browseand download new addons directly from Kodi's GUI.
Many of these online content sources are in over-the-top content high definition servicesand use video streaming site as sources for the media content that is offered.
Kodi has extensibility and integration with online sources for free and premium streamingcontent, and offers content from everything from commercial video to free educationalprogramming, and media from individuals and small businesses.
Not all content sources on add-ons are available in every country, however.
Due to rights agreements, many content sources are geo-restricted to prevent users in outsidecountries from accessing content, although some have taken to bypassing the regionalrestrictions in order to unblock these sources, disregarding the usage rights.
==== Plugins and scripts ==== Kodi features an integrated Python Scriptsinterpreter for addon extensions, and WindowXML application framework (a XML-based widgettoolkit engine for creating a GUI for apps and widgets) in a similar fashion to ApplemacOS Dashboard Widgets and Microsoft Gadgets.
Python widget scripts allow normal users to add new functionality to Kodi themselves,using Python scripting language.
Current plugin scripts include functions like Internet-TV and movie-trailer browsers, cinemaguides,weather forecast, over-the-top content video streaming services like YouTube, BBC iPlayer,Hulu, Netflix, Veoh, MLB.
tv, Internet-radio-station browsers such as Pandora Radio, online picturesharing sites like Flickr, TV guides such as TVShow Time, e-mail clients, instant messaging,different timetables, home automation scripts to front-end control PVR software and hardware,P2P file-sharing downloaders (BitTorrent), IRC, also casual games such as Tetris.
==== Metadata extraction and web scrapers ====Kodi has the built-in optional function to automatically download metadata information,cover art and other related media artwork online through its web scrapers that looksfor media in the user's audio and video folders and their sub-directories.
These "scrapers" are used as importers to obtain detailed information from various Internetresources about movies and television shows.
It can get synopses, reviews, movie posters, titles, genre classification, and other similardata.
XBMCGUI then provides a rich display for audio and video files that the scrapers have identified.
Scrapers use sites like The Movie Database (TMDb) or IMDb.
com to obtain thumbnails andinformation on movies, thetvdb.
com for TV show posters and episode plots, CDDB for audioCD track listings, and Allmusic (AMG) and MusicBrainz for album thumbnails, reviews,and metadata.
tv has been added to the list of information sources and XBMC can useit to retrieve logos, backgrounds, CDs with transparent backgrounds, album covers andbanners among other image types for music artists, TV shows and movies, the popularityof which contributed to XBMC being able to handle new image types.
=== Skins and themes === Like the majority of applications that originatedfrom a 'homebrew' scene, modification and customization of the interface using skinsis very popular among Kodi users and hundreds of skins and themes are available for usersto install.
The Kodi skinning engine's flexibility is also advantageous to third parties wantingto create derivative works, as it facilitates rebranding the environment and making deeperchanges to the look and feel of the user interface.
As of Kodi version 17, the official default skins for new installs are "Estuary", fortypical home-theater usage, and "Estouchy" for touchscreens.
These newly designed skins replace the longtime default skin "Confluence", and are intendedto present more content on the homescreen, be easier for new users, and bring "Kodi intothe present day of UI design.
"Users can also create their own skin (or simply modify anexisting skin) and share it with others via public websites that are used for Kodi skintrading and development.
Many such third-party skins exist that are well maintained by the community, and whilesome skins are originals with unique designs, most begin as a clone or an exact replicaof other multimedia software interfaces, such as Apple Front Row, Windows Media Center Edition(MCE), MediaPortal, Wii Channel Menu (Xii), Xbox 360 interface, and others.
In additionto skins and themes users can create a themed package called a 'build'.
Within this package homebrew developers are able to distribute a skin and multiple addons.
The delivery mechanism used within the Kodi scene is called a wizard with the ReplicantWizard being the most prominent.
=== Web Interfaces === Web Interface addons for Kodi normally allowbrowsing a media library remotely, to handle music playlists from a computer instead oftelevision.
Others allow remotely controlling the navigation of XBMC like a remote for remote controllingof an installed and concurrently active Kodi session running on a computer if it runs onan internet tablet or similar device with a touch interface.
Others act like a media manager to allow modifying metadata and artwork in XBMC's video and musiclibraries.
=== Application launcher === Kodi has a "My Programs" section which ismeant to function as an application launcher for third-party software such as computergames and video game emulators, all from a GUI with thumbnail and different listingsoptions.
However, while this feature was fully functioning on the Xbox version of XBMC, it is still inits infant stage on Android, iOS, Linux, macOS, and Windows, thus requiring third-party launcherplugins to function properly.
== Mobile remotes and second screen apps == There are many software applications for mobiledevices available for and associated with Kodi.
Some of these mobile apps just works as simple remote controls, while others function asmore advanced second screen companion apps, offering additional information about whatusers are viewing or listening to on Kodi, such as metadata about movie actors and musicartists, with links to other works available from those persons in their collection oronline.
"XBMC Remote for Android" and "XBMC Remote for iOS" are free and open source officialapps for mobile devices released by Team-Kodi/Team-XBMC on Google Play for Android devices and theApp Store for iOS Devices, such as iPad, iPhone, and iPod Touch.
These applications act as a second screen and remote control solution which allows forfully browsing the media library and for remote controlling of an installed and concurrentlyactive XBMC session running on a computer via the handheld touchscreen user interfaceof these device.
Several third-party developers have also released multiple other unofficialKodi remote control apps for iOS, Android, BlackBerry, Symbian, Ubuntu Touch, WindowsMobile, and Windows Phone devices.
Some of these remote control apps are made specifically for controlling Kodi, while someuniversal remote control apps are capable of controlling many different media centerand media player applications, and some of these third-party remote apps cost money whileothers are free.
== Official versions == Due to the dated hardware of the first-generationXbox game console that Kodi-XBMC was designed for, and a desire to expand the project'send-user and developer-base, many official ports of XBMC to computer operating-systemsand hardware platforms have been created.
Through the processing power of more recent computer hardware, XBMC can decode high-definitionvideo up to and beyond 1080p resolutions, bypassing hardware limitations of the Xboxversion of XBMC.
In recent releases of Kodi-XBMC there is hardware accelerated video decoding for DXVA, VDPAU,VA-API GPU hardware video decoding, as well as hardware accelerated video decoding viaARM NEON, and OpenMAX, Broadcom Crystal HD.
The source code for XBMC is actively updated by developers in a public Git repository,which may contain features and functionality not yet incorporated into the most recent"stable" releases.
=== Kodibuntu === Kodibuntu (formerly XBMCbuntu) was a freeUbuntu-based Linux distribution with Kodi (formerly XBMC) for Linux already installedand pre-configured, providing a complete packaged media center software suite for all IA-32/x86-basedpersonal computers.
Kodibuntu uses Kodi software for all media playback and is primarily designed for bare-metalinstallations to achieve instant-on type boot to achieve a set-top box experience on anHTPC.
It replaced XBMCbuntu which in turn replaced XBMC Live, the former official Live CD (Linux)distribution.
Kodibuntu was based on Lubuntu, an Ubuntu Linux fork that was "lighter, lessresource hungry and more energy-efficient" than the standard Ubuntu desktop distributions.
The Windows XP Media Center Edition Remote and IR-receiver dongle works directly withKodibuntu out of the box, which means Windows Media Center users with these common peripheralscan use Kodibuntu without requiring any additional hardware.
Following the principles of MythTVdistributions and GeeXboX, Kodibuntu is designed to simplify the permanent installation ofKodi onto a computer for use as a dedicated home theater PC.
The user can directly install XBMC from the bootable CD onto a USB flash drive or internalhard disk drive, since it comes with a complete instant-on (Linux kernel-based) embedded operatingsystem.
When installed on a USB flash drive or internal hard disk drive, Kodibuntu can save settingsand make updates to XBMC and the operating system back to that drive.
=== Native applications === Kodi for Linux (formerly XBMC for Linux) isprimarily developed for Ubuntu Linux and Kodi's developers' own Kodibuntu (formerly XBMCbuntu).
Third-party packages for most other Linux distributions are also available, and it ispossible to compile XBMC Media Center from scratch for any Linux distribution, as longas the required dependency libraries are installed first.
Hardware accelerated video decoding is achieved via the VDPAU API on Nvidia's GPUs, the VAAPIAPI for AMD/ATI Radeon, S3 Graphics, and Intel's newer Integrated Graphics Processors, as wellas hardware accelerated video decoding via OpenMAX, ARM NEON, and Broadcom Crystal HDon systems with supporting hardware.
Development version of Kodi/XBMC for Linux is available at Launchpad as PPA (PersonalPackage Archive) for the standard Ubuntu Desktop version 8.
04 and later, as well as DEB packagesfor Debian.
Kodi for OS X(formerly XBMC for Mac) runs natively on Mac OS X Tiger and later, as wellas on the Apple TV.
1080p playback can be achieved on Apple computers either via software decoding on the CPU, ifit is powerful enough, or by hardware-accelerated video decoding for hardware supporting Apple'sVDA API or video decoders such as the Broadcom Crystal HD.
1080p playback on the first-generationApple TV (a.
"ATV1") can only be achieved by hardware accelerated video decoding viaBroadcom Crystal HD; the user must replace the ATV's internal WiFi adapter with a BroadcomCrystal HD PCI Express Mini (mini-PCIe) card in order to activate this functionality.
Kodifor Windows (formerly XBMC for Windows) runs natively on Windows 7, Windows 8, and Windows10 as a 32-bit or 64-bit application.
1080p and Ultra HD (4K) playback can be achieved on Windows computers either via software decodingon the CPU, if it's powerful enough, or by hardware accelerated video decoding.
Hardware video decoding via DirectX Video Acceleration is supported, although this enhancementonly runs on Windows 7 (or later?) since it uses the DXVA 2.
0 API, which was not supportedin Windows XP.
Kodi for iOS (formerly XBMC for iOS), a full port of Kodi to Apple's iOSoperating-system, was released publicly on 20 January 2011.
It supported both 720p and 1080p hardware accelerated video decoding of H.
264 videos,and was compatible with Apple's iDevices that use Apple A4 or Apple A5 (ARM-based) processorswith a jailbroken iOS operating-system.
In late 2017 MacWorld UK described how to installon iOS devices before iOS 11 without jailbreak.
Kodi for Android (formerly XBMC for Android) is a full port of the complete Kodi/XBMC applicationto Google's Android operating-system, officially compatible with Android 4.
0 (Ice Cream Sandwich)and later versions supporting API Level 14.
was first announced and its source code releasedpublicly on 13 June 2012.
This is a full port of Kodi's C++ and C source code with all its dependencies to Androidwith a build-system that was designed to handle multiple processor architectures, like ARM,MIPS, and x86 with the Android NDK (Native Development Kit for Android) without usinga single line of Java, and the XBMC.
APK is running natively under Android as a NativeActivityapplication.
Hardware accelerated video decoding on Android is currently only officially available forsome specific hardware platforms, such as the Amlogic SoC based Pivos XIOS series whichhave been used as the reference hardware platform during the development so far.
XBMC source code must be compiled with Google's official Android NDK revision 10d or later,and be built for the android-17 toolchain (Android API Level 17) using GCC version 4.
8,which Kodi for Android code currently requires to compile correctly but is not supportedby Google's Android NDK.
This is also the real reason why XBMC for Android does not support the original GoogleTV; since the Android NDK was not made available for older Google TV devices it means thatKodi/XBMC could not be compiled for it today.
=== Xbox (first-generation) ===XBMC 9.
04 (codename: Babylon) point-release version of XBMC for Xbox, now obsolete, wasreleased on 6 May 2009 as the last official version of XBMC for Xbox.
The original developers of XBMC have since issued a statement stating they will no longerdevelop or support XBMC for Xbox as part of the XBMC project as of 27 May 2010.
The development of XBMC for Xbox ended because the focus for all Team XBMC developers hascompletely shifted to the Linux, Mac, and Windows versions of XBMC instead.
Even though the original XBMC project no longer develops or supports XBMC for the Xbox, anXBMC version for the Xbox is still available via the third-party developer spin-off project"XBMC4Xbox", who have completely taken over the development and support of XBMC for theoriginal Xbox.
XBMC for Xbox was never an authorized/signed Microsoft product, therefore a modificationof the Xbox is required in order to run XBMC on an Xbox game-console.
XBMC for Xbox can be run as an application (like any Xbox game), or as a dashboard thatappears directly when the Xbox is turned on.
Since XBMC for Xbox was part of an open source software program, its development source codewas stored on a publicly accessible subversion repository.
Accordingly, unofficial executable builds from the subversion repository are often releasedby third parties on sites unaffiliated with the official XBMC project.
=== Xbox One === On 29 December 2017, Kodi developers announcedvia the news section of their official website that a Kodi app had been released for theXbox One.
It is noted that the UWP version will retain the characteristic Kodi appearance, however,many core features are missing or broken.
== Commercial systems == The developers of Kodi (formerly XBMC) statethat as long as the GPL licensing of the Kodi software is respected they would love Kodito run on as many third-party hardware platforms and operating systems as possible, as "Poweredby Kodi" (or "Powered by XBMC") branded devices and systems.
They envision Kodi being pre-installed as a third-party software component that commercialand non-commercial ODMs and OEMs and systems integrator companies can use royalty-freeon their own hardware, hardware such as set-top boxes from cable-TV companies, Blu-ray Discand DVD players, game-consoles, or embedded computers and SoC (System-on-a-Chip) builtinto television sets for web-enabled TVs, and other entertainment devices for the livingroom entertainment system, home cinema, or similar uses.
Below is a list of third-partycompanies that sell hardware bundled with Kodi or XBMC software pre-installed, or selluninstalled systems that specifically claim to be Kodi- or XBMC-compatible.
Many of these third-party companies help submit bug fixes and new features back upstream tothe original Kodi-XBMC project.
=== Computer hardware === ARCTIC is a company based in Switzerland bestknown for their cooling solutions worked in partnership with the OpenELEC team.
On 5 February 2013, together they released a fully passively cooled entertainment system:the MC001 media centre (US and EU version), equipped with the latest XBMC 12 (OpenELEC3.
OpenELEC and ARCTIC are planning on their next release, aim to provide a more dedicatedbuilds for the ARCTIC MC001 media centre systems.
AIRIS Telebision, sold by Telebision in Spain anddesigned specifically for the Spanish market, is a nettop based on Nvidia Ion chipset, pre-installedUbuntu base with XBMC for Linux and a customized AEON skin and Spanish plugins.
Other than the modified skin, what is unique with the AIRIS Telebision's XBMC build isthat it comes with a digital distribution service platform that they call their "AppStore" which lets users download new Spanish plugins and updates for existing plugins.
Telebision also lets users download a Live CD version of their software as freeware,which lets users install their Telebision distribution on any Nvidia Ion based computer.
Lucida TV II, made by LUCIDQ inc, is a nettop based on Nvidia Ion chipset which can be orderedwith Xubuntu and XBMC software installed.
Pulse-Eight Limited sells both custom and off-the-shelf hardware primarily designedfor Kodi-XBMC, such as remote controls, HTPC systems and accessories, including a customHTPC PVR set-top-box pre-installed with XBMC that they call "PulseBox" Pulse-Eight alsooffers free performance tuned embedded versions of XBMC that they call "Pulse" which is basedon OpenELEC and a custom PVR-build of XBMC that is meant to run on a dedicated HTPC system.
XtreamerUltra and Xtreamer Ultra 2, manufactured by the South Korean company Unicorn InformationSystems, are nettops based on Nvidia graphics and Intel Atom processors which come withOpenELEC and Kodi-XBMC software pre-installed.
The first-generation Xtreamer Ultra uses Nvidia Ion chipset with a 1.
80 GHz dual-core IntelAtom D525 CPU, while the Xtreamer Ultra 2 uses discrete GeForce GT 520M graphics witha 2.
13 GHz dual-core Intel Atom D2700 CPU.
Since 10 September 2010, ZOTAC has been shippinga software bundle that they call ZOTAC Boost XL with all their new motherboards and Mini-PCs,such as Zotac's ZBOX and MAG series of Nettops which Zotac also does demos of with XBMC.
This ZOTAC Boost XL software bundle consist of the software applications; Auslogics BoostSpeed,Cooliris, Kylo (HDTV-optimized Web Browser), and XBMC Media Center.
Zotac's ZBOX and MAGseries of small mini-PCs are nettops based on Intel, AMD, or Nvidia graphics, and theyare all sold in both as complete ready-to-use computer and as barebone computers (withoutmemory and hard drive).
Zotac Zbox ID33, ID34, ID81, ID80 and AD04 are all specifically marketed towards theHTPC market, with some coming with slot-loading Blu-ray Disc optical disc drive, and somewith a remote control.
The mintBox by the Linux Mint team is an OEM version of the Israelicompany CompuLab's fit-PC, which comes pre-installed with Linux Mint open source operating-systemand software, MATE desktop, and XBMC.
Available in two fanless models, both with AMD APUs, HDMI output port, eight USB slots,two eSATA ports, Gigabit Ethernet, 802.
11 b/g/n Wi-Fi, built-in Bluetooth, and an infraredmedia center remote control.
=== Dedicated devices === PrismCube Ruby by Marusys is a DVB-S2 twin-tunerhigh-definition DVR-PVR set-top-box running XBMC as its main interface on-top of embeddedLinux.
The Little Black Box is a Linux kernel-based ARM media player with XBMC as its main interface.
MarusysMS630S and MS850S are high-definition PVR-ready set-top-boxes with the ability to run Linuxkernel-based media players like XBMC, and Marusys is advertising these two devices ascompatible with XBMC.
Myka ION is a fanless Nvidia Ion-based set-top device designed tobring Internet television and media stored on the home network to the living room; itcomes pre-installed with XBMC Media Center, Boxee, and Hulu Desktop as applications thatcan be started from the main menu.
The MK-X1 by Modified Konstructs is an Nvidia Ion-basedset-top device based on Acer Aspire Revo that comes pre-loaded with XBMC, and the devicehas a recommended retail price of $300 (US).
Neuros LINK made by Neuros Technology is an openUbuntu-based set-top device and media extender designed to bring internet television andother video to the television, it comes pre-installed with XBMC Media Center.
BryteWerks Model OneProjector is a 1080p HD digital video projector designed for home cinema use; it has an integratedhome theater PC running a custom version of XBMC.
In addition it features a remote control, as well as a 720p 8.
9-inch touch screen paneldisplay on the back of the projector for controlling the system.
It also has a built-in Wi-Fi and Ethernet adapters, as well as a slot-loaded Blu-rayDisc player, and includes a 500 GB solid-state drive and an additional internal 2 TB harddisk drive can be added.
The Primus by Mediaimpact Technologies is a Linux Mint-based media centerand set-top-box that integrates MythTV, Netflix Desktop, Hulu Desktop, and Steam Gaming throughKodi for a seamless home entertainment system ready for the living room.
It comes complete with SMK-Link remote control.
== Derivatives and forks ==Kodi/XBMC media center source code have over the years become a popular software to forkand to use as an application framework platform for others to base their own media playeror media center software on, as if Kodi were a GUI toolkit, windowing system, or windowmanager.
And today at least Boxee, Plex, Tofu, MediaPortal, OpenELEC, OSMC, GeeXboX, Voddler, DVDFab MediaPlayer, and Horizon TV are all separate derivative products that are all openly known to at leastinitially have forked the graphical user interface (GUI) and media player part of their softwarefrom XBMC's source code.
Many of these third-party forks and derivative work of Kodi-XBMC are said to still assistwith submitting bug fixes upstream and sometimes help getting new features backported to theoriginal Kodi-XBMC project so that others can utilize it as well, shared from one mainsource.
However some which was initially a fork of XBMC have since fully or partially been rewrittento use closed source proprietary software.
For more information see the main "List of software based on XBMC" article.
Some examples on building on Kodi-XBMC are OSMC, OpenELEC and GeeXboX which are freeand open source embedded operating systems providing complete media center software suitethat comes with a preconfigured version of Kodi/XBMC and DVR/PVR plugins.
They are both designed to be extremely small and very fast booting embedded Linux-baseddistributions, primarily optimized to be booted from flash memory or a solid-state drive,and specifically targeted to a minimum set-top box hardware setup based on ARM SoC's or Intelx86 processor and graphics.
Similar embedded Linux distributions to OpenELEC/GeeXboX arethe professionally made E2BMC and OpenPCTV which are commercial Kodi/XBMC-based softwareplatform for DVR/PVR set-top boxes, with both being designed as a hybrid integration betweenKodi media center software and Dreambox's Enigma2 PVR software scripts.
Another exampleis XBMC4Xbox, which is a third-party developer spin-off project of XBMC, with still activedevelopment and support of the Xbox platform.
This project was created as a fork of XBMC as a separate project to continue having aversion of XBMC for the Xbox hardware platform.
It was not started by official members of the official XBMC project, nor will it besupported by the official Team Kodi in any way.
It started when support for the Xbox branch was officially dropped by Team XBMC, whichwas announced on 27 May 2010.
== Programming and developing == Kodi is a non-profit and free software communitydriven open-source software project that is developed only by volunteers in their sparetime without any monetary gain.
XBMC Foundation and the team of developers leading the development of Kodi/XBMC, "Team-Kodi"/"Team-XBMC",encourage anyone and everyone to submit their own source code patches for new features andfunctions, improve existing ones, or fix bugs to the Kodi/XBMC project.
The online user manual is wiki-based and community driven, and it also works as a basic developers'guide for getting a good overview of Kodi's architecture.
However, as with most non-profit software projects, to delve deeper into programming,looking at the actual source code and the Doxygen formatted "code documentation" commentsinside that code is needed.
=== Architecture ===Kodi is a cross-platform software application whose core is mainly programmed in C++.
Kodi uses OpenGL (or OpenGL ES) graphics rendering under Kodi for both Linux and macOS, whileKodi for Windows uses Microsoft DirectX multimedia framework and Direct3D rendering, as the Xboxversion of XBMC did.
Some of Kodi's own libraries, as well as many third-party libraries that Kodi depends on,are written in the C programming-language, instead of C++ as Kodi's core, but they arethen mostly used with a C++ wrapper and, through Kodi's core monolithic nature, are loadedvia a dynamic linker loader for on-demand loading and unloading at run time.
Kodi also still partially uses the SDL (Simple DirectMedia Layer) multimedia framework forinput on Linux, but its developers are working on completely removing that small remainingdependency on SDL.
Because of Kodi/XBMC's origin with the resource constraints on the hardwareand environment of the first-generation Xbox game-console platform, all software developmentof Kodi/XBMC has always been focused on reserving the limited resources that existed on embeddedsystem hardware, like the original Xbox (which was only a 733 MHz Intel Pentium III and 64MB of RAM in total as shared memory), as well as the still relatively low resources of embeddedsystem devices today, of which the main hindrance has always been the amount of available systemRAM and graphics memory at any one time.
This means that Kodi/XBMC is purposely programmed to be very resource- and power-efficient andcan therefore run on very low-end and relatively non-expensive hardware, especially when comparedto other media center software design for HTPC use.
But because of its origins from theXbox game-console, Kodi/XBMC's legacy graphics renderer still runs in a more game-loop renderingenvironment rather than using a fully event-driven and on-demand rendering, meaning that it isalmost constantly re-drawing the GUI and refreshing the frames as fast as it can, even when nothingis changing on the screen.
This results in very high CPU and high GPU usage, which can be observed on embedded systemsand low-end machines, and hence cause high temperatures, high fan activity, and highpower consumption unless capped at a maximum frame per second configuration for that specificplatform build.
Work is however constantly ongoing by the developers to make Kodi/XBMC run using muchfewer resources on low-power and embedded systems, which will indirectly benefit allnon-embedded systems as well.
Efficiency improvements in this area are however being worked on in order to move away fromthat old style game-loop environment in order to reduce high CPU/GPU usage by the GUI, especiallyas XBMC usage on embedded platforms with limited CPU/GPU resources keeps growing in popularity.
0 (Eden) introduced Dirty-Regions rendering option for texture support to theXBMC skinning engine as an option, and XBMC 12.
0 (Frodo) enabled Dirty Regions renderingto redraw the whole screen on a single dirty region by default on all platforms.
Work is also in progress for XBMC 14.
0 to introduce an abstracted scene-graph deferredrendering for GUI renderer abstraction.
==== Portability ==== Kodi has a portable code base, with its trunk(mainline source code tree) officially available for IA-32/x86, x86-64, PowerPC, and ARM-basedplatforms.
The Kodi GUI does require 3D hardware accelerated graphics (GPU) that support OpenGL ES, OpenGL,or EGL, or Direct3D with device drivers that support OpenGL ES 2.
0, or OpenGL 1.
3 or laterwith GLSL, or DirectX in order to render the GUI at an acceptable frame rate.
Kodi is thus officially not yet available for MIPS upstream in mainline source coderepository from Team-Kodi, nor does it as yet support DirectFB or DRI (Direct RenderingInfrastructure) rendering without OpenGL/GLES hardware accelerated graphics support.
The combination of MIPS, DirectFB, and DRI is a popular architecture used today by simplerset-top boxes like digital broadcasting (cable/satellite) boxes and low-end digital media players, suchas those based on MIPS architecture chipsets from Sigma Designs or Realtek.
Kodi ports to MIPS is, however, currently being actively worked on by several independentdevelopment teams.
Kodi for Linux supports toolchain building systems for embedded developmentsuch as Yocto, Buildroot (uClibc), and the Linaro set of Makefiles and patches for easingthe generation of cross-compilation toolchains as well as the creation of a file system onembedded Linux systems across a wide range of hardware, kernel platforms, and CPU architectures(x86, x86-64, ARM, MIPS, PowerPC, etc.
=== Python scripts as plugins and addons (widgets and gadgets) ===Kodi allows developers to create addons using a built-in Python interpreter (version 2.
6or higher depending on system) and its own WindowXML application framework, which togetherform an XML-based widget toolkit for which they can extend the capability of Kodi bycreating a GUI for widgets.
Python widget scripts allow non-developers to themselves create new add-ons for Kodi,using Python.
=== Application programming interface (API) ===Other than the application programming interfaces (APIs) available to third-party Python scriptsand addon plugins, Kodi features several other APIs for controlling Kodi remotely or froman external application.
These APIs includes a JSON-RPC server, D-Bus Server, Web server, UPnP AV media server (withUPnP MediaServer ControlPoint, UPnP MediaRenderer DCP, UPnP RenderingControl DCP, and UPnP RemoteUser Interface server), and a custom multi-protocol Event Server for remote controls.
=== GUI-engine and skinning (themes) === Kodi/XBMC is noted as having a very flexibleGUI toolkit and robust framework for its GUI.
With its underlying complex graphical design and layout library (named libGUI in Kodi/XBMC),it provides a simple abstraction layer between the application code and the interface, whileallowing extremely flexible dynamic layouts and animations that are easy to work withand makes it possible to create completely unique skins for XBMC.
The skin files are written in XAML, using a standard XML base, making theme-skinningand personal customization very accessible.
== Software limitations == This is a list of software limitations inthe Kodi/XBMC source code:Kodi's own internal cross-platform video and audio players (DVDPlayer and PAPlayer) cannotofficially play any audio or video files that are protected or encrypted with Digital RightsManagement (DRM) technologies for access control, meaning audio files purchased from onlinemusic stores such as iTunes Music Store, MSN Music, Audible.
com, Windows Media Player Stores,and video files protected with Windows Media DRM or DivX proprietary DRM.
Such files can be played only by using another media player supporting DRM, or by removingthe DRM protection from the file.
As of February 2014 Kodi supported plug-ins written in the Python script language andbinary add-ons.
== Reception == Kodi won a Lifehacker Award in 2014 for "BestMedia Player" in their entertainment selection.
Kodi won two SourceForge 2006 Community Choice Awards.
In the 2007 Community Choice Awards, Kodi was nominated finalist in six categories.
Also in the 2008 Community Choice Awards Kodi won an award for Best Project for Gamers.
With Microsoft's decision to discontinue Windows Media Center (WMC) starting Windows 10, htpcBeginner.
comvoted Kodi not only as the best WMC alternative but also in many ways better than WMC.
== History ==Xbox Media Center (XBMC) was the successor to the Xbox Media Player (XBMP) software.
Xbox Media Player development stopped on 13 December 2003, by which time its successorwas ready for its debut, renamed as it was growing out of its 'player' name and intoa 'center' for media playback.
The first stable release of XBMC was on 29 June 2004, with the official release of XboxMediaCenter1.
This announcement also encouraged everyone using XBMP or XBMC Beta release to update,as all support for those previous versions would be dropped, and they would only supportversion 1.
Not featured in XBMP, the addition of embedded Python was given the ability to draw interfaceelements in the GUI, and allowed user and community generated scripts to be executedwithin the XBMC environment.
With the release of 1.
0 in the middle of 2004, work continuedon the XBMC project to add more features, such as support for iTunes features like DAAPand Smart Playlists, as well as lots of improvements and fixes.
The second stable release of XBMC, 1.
0, was released on 18 October 2004.
This release included support for more media types, file types, container formats, as wellas video playback of Nullsoft streaming videos and karaoke support (CD-G).
After two yearsof heavy development, XBMC announced a stable point final release of XBMC 2.
0 on 29 September2006.
Even more features were packed into the new version with the addition of RAR and zip archivesupport, a brand new player interface with support for multiple players.
Such players include PAPlayer, the new audio/music player with crossfade, gapless playback andReplayGain support, and the new DVDPlayer with support for menu and navigation supportas well as ISO/img image parsing.
Prior to this point release, XBMC just used a modified fork of MPlayer for all of itsmedia needs, so this was a big step forward.
Support for iTunes 6.
x DAAP, and Upnp Clients for streaming was also added.
A reworked Skinning Engine was included in this release to provide a more powerful wayto change the appearance of XBMC.
The last two features include read-only support for FAT12/16/32 formatted USB mass storagedevices, and a "skinnable" 3D visualizer.
The release of XBMC 2.
1 on 12 November 2006 contained numerous fixes for bugs that madeit through the 2.
This also marked the change from CVS to SVN (Subversion) for the development tree.
On 29 May 2007, the team behind XBMC put out a call for developers interested in portingXBMC to the Linux operating system.
A few developers on Team-XBMC had already begun porting parts of XBMC over to Linuxusing SDL and OpenGL as a replacement for DirectX, which XBMC was using heavily on theXbox version of XBMC.
Development on the Git codebase is continuing and the versioningscheme has been changed to reflect the release year and month, e.
On 27 May 2010, the team behind XBMC announced the splitting of the Xbox branch into a newproject; "XBMC4Xbox" which will continue the development and support of XBMC for the oldXbox hardware platform as a separate project, with the original XBMC project no longer offeringany support for the Xbox.
On 2 January 2011, XBMC moved the source code repository fromsubversion to git, hosted at GitHub.
On 1 August 2014, an announcement was made of release14 and name change to Kodi.
=== Releases === This is a release history with condensed change-loglists for the most important added or removed notable new features, functions, and changedin each stable version of Kodi/XBMC.
== Organization and licensing == The XBMC Foundation is the organization behindthe Kodi and XBMC projects.
It is legally represented by the Software Freedom Law Center (SFLC), which assists theKodi/XBMC project and its developers in legal matters such as intellectual property.
It also assists with economic issues such as handling donations and sponsors that helpthe project with expenses for dedicated hosting service and activities such as going to developerconferences, trade fairs and computer expos to tech demo Kodi, meeting with potentialnew developers, and marketing the software.
Kodi's source code is licensed under the GNU GeneralPublic License, and is hosted through Git repositories.
== Use for illegal streaming == Third-party add-ons allow users to streamcopyrighted content without the permission of its copyright holder.
Some Kodi distributions and hardware devices, often marketed as "fully loaded", are pre-loadedwith the software and such add-ons.
As a result, some users have incorrectly associated these products and add-ons as being affiliatedwith the Kodi project.
In June 2015, Amazon Appstore pulled Kodi, as it can be "used to facilitate the piracyor illegal download of content", even though the software is not bundled with such content.
XBMC Foundation president Nathan Betzen disagreed with the assumption, stating that "We alwayssay we don't care what our users do with the software, and we stand by that position.
But we sure do hate it when companies destroy the name of our software in order to makea profit.
"He also considered it ironic that Amazon would ban the app, given that it, in his opinion,helped to bolster the popularity of Amazon Fire TV products.
It was also pointed out that Amazon still distributed Kodi distributions with infringingadd-ons via the same storefront.
In December 2015, the Amazon Fire TV Stick experienced a stock shortage in the UnitedKingdom that was speculated to have been associated with its use with Kodi.
In February 2016, theXBMC Foundation reiterated its stance on third-party Kodi products meant for the streaming of unlicensedcontent; Betzen explained that the reputation of the Kodi project had been hurt by its associationwith third-party products whose sellers "make a quick buck modifying Kodi, installing brokenpiracy add-ons, advertising that Kodi lets you watch free movies and TV, and then vanishingwhen the user buys the box and finds out that the add-on they were sold on was a crummy,constantly breaking mess.
"Betzen warned that although it is open source software, the name "Kodi" and its logos areregistered trademarks of the XBMC Foundation, and that the foundation intended to strictlyenforce its trademark rights to prevent their unauthorized use, especially in associationwith information and devices meant to enable access to unlicensed content.
In April 2017,following an April Fools' Day stunt where the Kodi website was taken down and replacedwith a fake domain seizure notice, Kodi's developers stated that they were consideringworking with legal third-party content providers to officially support their services withinKodi, to counter the perception that the software is primarily used for piracy.
In March 2018,Google removed "Kodi" from its autocomplete search query, citing that the term was associatedwith copyright infringement.
== See also ==List of smart TV platforms and middleware softwareComparison of PVR software packages.